Bipolar Disorder and Its Subtypes

The key identifying feature of bipolar disorder is the tendency of manic episodes to alternate with depressive episodes in an unending ride from the peaks of elation to the depths of despair. The specific feature of bipolar disorders is the manic episode that follows a normal episode or a depressive episode, and again it is followed by a normal episode or a depressive episode in an unending process.

The Perception of Counselling and Psychotherapy in Turkey

According the information gathered by in-depth interviews highlighted several themes about counselling and psychotherapy field in Turkey.

The Importance of Family
In collectivistic Turkish culture, relationships within the family are very important. For people, caring for the family is most important, and individuals may consider their family first before their freedom, personal benefits and independent choices. Considering that the family is seen as culturally and morally valuable, people are judged socially if they do not care about their family, so there is added social pressure on them (Metz, 1995). Many people have internalised this cultural value, so many Turkish people do not need to be judged to take responsibility for their family. Related to the importance of family, Turkish people’s thoughts and actions may be influenced highly by their family, and encouragement coming from within is very important to maintain thoughts and actions. Therefore, Turkish people’s experiences and thoughts of psychotherapy are also mainly influenced by their family. I think that considering family and maybe inviting family members to psychotherapy may be beneficial for Turkish clients. I believe that family problems should be solved within the family circle, otherwise the client may return with the same problematic thoughts and acts.